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The GALAXIES beamline is dedicated to inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and hard x-ray photoemission (HAXPES). These spectroscopic techniques are powerful probes to characterize the electronic properties of materials. The beamline is optimized to operate in the 2.3 - 12 keV energy range with high resolution and micro beam.

GALAXIES comprises of two endstations for RIXS and HAXPES

Scientific opportunities

Quantum materials

Strongly correlated electrons

Superconducting materials

Mixed valent compounds; heavy fermions

Oxide heterostructures ; interfaces

Energy materials, catalysis

Metal complexes

Chemical analysis in-situ

Catalysis, electrochemistry

Extreme Conditions

Phase transition under high pressure

K-edge of light elements 

Dilute Matter, Liquid phases

Chemistry in solution

Ultrafast molecular dynamics

Cultural heritage materials

Chemical speciation




RUEFF Jean-Pascal
Beamline Manager
Beamline Scientist
Beamline Scientist
PRIEUR Dominique
Beamline Engineer Assistant
CAPONE Federico
RAJI Aravind
sur GALAXIES : Post-doc
actuellement : Maitre de conférence, LPS, Orsay
sur GALAXIES : Ph.D.
actuellement : Scientifique de ligne, Argonne National Lab.
sur GALAXIES : Post doc
actuellement : Scientifique de ligne (LUCIA), Synchrotron SOLEIL
RAULT Julien
sur GALAXIES : Post doc
actuellement : Scientifique de ligne (CASSIOPEE), Synchrotron SOLEIL

Associates and Partners

Associates :

Marc SIMON, LCPMR, Sorbonne Université, Paris

Victor BALEDENT,  LPS, Université Paris Saclay, Orsay

Matteo GATTI, LSI, Ecole Polytechnique

Academic Partners

Funding Parners :



Technical data

Energy range

2.3 – 12 keV


ΔE from 100 meV to 1 eV at 8 keV 


In-vacuum U20 undulator


linear (H)
linear (V), circular  with a quarter wave plate

Spot size

20 (V) x 80 (H) µm2 in standard mode, 5 (V) x 10 (H) µm2 in KB configuration


2-bounce fixed-exit monochromator Si111, DCM
4-bounce high-resolution monochromator (Si220 symetric and asymetric), HRM
Collimating and focusing mirrors; 2 mirrors in KB configuration


1.5x1012 ph/s (standard foc.), 5x1011 (micro-foc.) at 8 keV


Pixelated detectors
Si drift diodes
Avalanche diode


RIXS : 1-2m radius IXS spectrometer ; 0.5-1 m radius multi-analyzer setup (4x1 or 2x2)
HAXPES : high energy / high resolution electron analyzer (30 meV à 12 keV)





Newport RIXS spectrometer in Rowland circle geometry
Energy range : ~4-12 keV
Spot size : 80 x 30 μm2 (H x V) [mode M2B] or 15 x 15 μm2 (H x V) [mode KB]

Available analyzers

Crystal Rayon Emin Emax Use Type
Si(111) 1 m 1977.35 (1) 2103.93 (1)   Bent uniform
    5932.05 (3) 6311.79 (3) Cr Kβ, Gd Lα1, Tb Lα1, Cr K  
    7909.40 (4) 8415.72 (4) Cu Kα1, Ni Kβ  
    9886.74 (5) 10519.65 (5) Tl La1  
Si (220) 1 m 3229.00 (1) 3435.70 (1) K Kα1, nIXS Bent diced
    6457.99 (2) 6871.41 (2) Mn Kβ, Mn K  
    9686.99 (3) 10307.1 (3) Ge Kα1  
Ge (331) 1 m 4777.59 5083.43 Ce Lα1, V Kα1, Pr Lα1 Bent uniform
Si (531) 1 m 6753.93 7186.29 Co Kα1,Fe Kβ, Fe K Bent uniform
Si (620) 1 m 7220.26 7682.47 Yb Lα1, Ni Kα1, Co Kβ Bent uniform
Si (533) 2 m 7486.12 7786.62 Co Kβ, Co K Bent uniform
Si (551) 2 m 8152.82 8480.08 Ni Kβ, Ni K Bent uniform
Si (553) 2 m 8768.97 9120.97 Cu Kβ, Cu K Bent uniform
Ge(111) 1 m 1898.42 (1) 2019.95 (1) P Kα1 Bent uniform
    5695.26 (3) 6059.85 (3) Mn Kα1, Eu Lα1  
    7593.68 (4) 8079.79 (4) Co K, Co Kβ  
    9492.10 (5) 10099.74 (5) Zn K, Zn Kβ, Ge Kα1  
Ge(220) 1m 3100.00 (1) 3298.45 (1) K Kα1 Bent uniform
    6199.99 (2) 6596.89 (2) Fe Kα1, Mn Kβ  
    9299.99 (3) 9895.34 (3) Zn Kβ  
Si(311) 1m 3786.34 (1) 4028.72 (1) I Lα1, Ca Kβ, Ca K Bent uniform
    11359.01 (3) 12086.16 (3) As K, Br Kα1  

XES scanning / HERFD-XAS

4 crystals, R = 1m ou 0.5 m
Johann geometry


 X-Ray Raman Scattering
Johann geometry
Si(110), 40 analyzers, R = 1m

XES dispersive

Von Hamos dispersive geometry
8 x Si(110), 8 x Si(111), R :=0.5 m

Sample Environments

  1. High pressure cells
  2. Low temperature
  3. High temperature
  4. Liquid microjet



Hemispherical Analyzer SCIENTA EW4000 

Ec < 12 keV, resolution = 150 meV
wide acceptance angle +/- 25°
Spot size : 80 x 30 μm2 (H x V)

Sample preparation

  1. UHV cleaving
  2. High temperature (900 °C)
  3. LEED

Sample environnements UHV

  1. 4 axes manipulator
  2. Low temperature (15 K)
  3. High temperature (900 °C)
  4. In-situ bias
  5. Liquid microjet
  6. Gas cell


Please use the following references when using the beamline equipments


J.-P. Rueff, J. M. Ablett, D. Céolin, D. Prieur, Th. Moreno, V. Balédent, B. Lassalle, J. E. Rault, M. Simon, and A. Shukla, The galaxies beamline at soleil synchrotron: Inelastic x-ray scattering and photoelectron spectroscopy in the hard x-ray range, J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 175 (2015).


D. Céolin, J.M. Ablett, D. Prieur, T. Moreno,  J.-P. Rueff, B. Pilette, T. Marchenko, L. Journel, T. Marin, R. Guillemin, and M. Simon, Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy on the GALAXIES beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron, J. Elec. Spect. Relat. Phenom. 190, 188 (2013)


J. M. Ablett,D. Prieur, D. Céolin, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, B. Lebert, M. Sauvage, Th. Moreno, S. Bac, V. Balédent, A. Ovono, M. Morand, F. Gélebart, A. Shukla and J.-P. Rueff, 'The GALAXIES inelastic hard X-ray scattering end-station at Synchrotron SOLEIL,' J. Synchrotron Rad. 26, 2019.

RIXS Multianalyseurs

F. Gélebart, M. Morand, Q. Dermigny, P. Giura, J.-P. Rueff, and A. Shukla, Large Solid Angle Spectrometer for Inelastic X-ray Scattering, AIP Conference Proceedings 879 (2007), no. 1, 1837.


J.M. Ablett, J.-M. Dubuisson, T. Moreno, D. Céolin, E. Raimon,  D. Prieur, D. Corruble,  J. Coquet, A. Lestrade, C. Bourgoin, and J.-P. Rueff, New Design Concept for a High-Resolution In-Vacuum 4-Bounce Hard X-Ray Monochromator at the GALAXIES Beamline at the SOLEIL Synchrotron, Journal of Physics Conferences Series, 425: art.n° 052007 (2013)